The point of Tonal Refraction

Often the simplest things are the hardest things, yet also the most memorable. I recall sitting in Carnegie Hall to hear Victoria de los Angeles give a soaringly beautiful lieder recital. She came out, alone, for her encore: a lullaby, sung a cappella. So haunting. I see as well as hear it still.


We are not encouraged to stay in touch with that level, either of performing, or of listening. Yet it is the one I most cherish: that is why I have always preferred to teach children and amateurs.

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